Projective Technique

Projective Techniques

Projective techniques, originally developed for use in psychology, can be used in an evaluation to provide a prompt for interviews.  Photo language is a particular type of projective technique where participants select one or two pictures from a set and use them to illustrate their comments about something.  For example, participants in a workshop might be asked to select two pictures – one that represents you at the beginning of this course and one at the end – and then to discuss the pictures and their hopes and fears about the course and its impacts. Projective techniques are typically divided into five groups (Linzey, 1959):

Projective techniques – The use of vague, ambiguous, unstructured stimulus objects or situations in which the subject “projects” his or her personality, attitude, opinions and self-concept to give the situation some structure. Uncover feelings, beliefs, attitudes and motivation which many consumers find difficult to articulate. Discover the person’s characteristics modes of perceiving his or her world and how to behave in it. Enter the private worlds of subjects to uncover their inner perspectives in a way they feel comfortable with

Practical Approach of Projective Techniques

  • A way of transcending communication barriers
  • Design and structure of projective techniques
  • Types of projective techniques
  • Analysis and interpretation of data
  • Advantages and disadvantages of projective techniques.
  1. Associative techniques
  2. Completion techniques
  3. Constructive techniques
  4. Choice/ordering techniques
  5. Expressive techniques
  • Associative techniques in which a particular stimulus is used to elicit the first thing that occurs in the subject’s mind.
  • Completion techniques in which the subject is required to complete sentences or drawings (sentence completion or captions in comic-strip callous).
  • Constructive techniques in which the subject is required to create a drawing, sculpture, or story.
  • Choice/ordering techniques in which the subject is required to choose from a group, or to order a group (of pictures, sentences, etc.).
  • Expressive techniques in which the subject is required to organize and incorporate a particular stimulus into a self-expressive process, such as role-playing, psychodrama, dance, etc. In my view, some of the narrative interviews commonly used in qualitative research nowadays also fall into this category

Continuous assessment

Continuous Assessment is the educational policy in which students are examined continuously over most of the duration of their education, the results of which are taken into account after leaving school. It is often proposed or used as an alternative to a final examination system.

Continuous Assessment Is Based on Criteria That Students Know and Understand

Assessment criteria must be clearly established and made explicit to students before an assignment or test so that students can focus their efforts. In addition, whenever possible, students need to be involved in developing assessment criteria. Appendix A (In: Senior 2 English Language Arts; A Foundation for Implementation) describes a process for creating assessment rubrics in collaboration with students.

Students should also understand clearly what successful accomplishment of each proposed task looks like. Models of student work from previous years and other exemplars assist students in developing personal learning goals.

Each assessment task should test only those learning outcomes that have been identified to students. This means, for example, that reading tests need to be devised and marked to gather information about students’ reading comprehension, not their ability to express ideas effectively in writing.

Continuous Assessment is the educational policy in which students are examined continuously over most of the duration of their education, the results of which are taken into account after leaving school. It is often proposed or used as an alternative to a final examination system. Continuous assessment is used for the calculate the marks is every type of work in College as for the test marks, home work, term paper marks in this term the calculate the every marks and the final find the total is the beast of two that is the Continuous assessment. The Continuous assessment is used to mainly calculate the TGPA and the CGP. Continuous Assessment is assessments (evaluations) that take place over a period of time. In other words you will be assessed right through your learning process and not only after the learning process. By doing continuous assessment you can track the improvement (if any) of the learner, you will be able to give more support and guidance, and the learner will have more opportunities to improve.


  • It is comprehensive
  • It is cumulative
  • It is diagnostic
  • Continuous assessment is formative
  • It is guidance-oriented
  • It is systematic in nature

What are the benefits of continuous assessment?

The continuous assessment process is much more than an examination of pupil achievement. Continuous assessment is also a powerful diagnostic tool that enables pupils to understand the areas in which they are having difficulty and to concentrate their efforts in those areas. Continuous assessment also allows teachers to monitor the impact of their lessons on pupil understanding. Teachers can modify their pedagogical strategies to include the construction of remediation activities for pupils who are not working at the expected grade level and the creation of enrichment activities for pupils who are working at or above the expected grade level. Hence, the continuous assessment process supports a cycle of self-evaluation and pupil-specific activities by both pupils and teachers.

Frequent interactions between pupils and teachers means that teachers know the strengths and weaknesses of their learners. These exchanges foster a pupil-teacher relationship based on individual interactions. Pupils learn that the teacher values their achievements and that their assessment outcomes have an impact on the instruction that they receive. One-to-one communication between the teacher and the pupil can motivate pupils to continue attending school and to work hard to achieve higher levels of mastery.

  • In continuous assessment, teachers assess the curriculum as implemented in the classroom. It also allows teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching strategies relative to the curriculum, and to change those strategies as dictated by the needs of their pupils. In addition, continuous assessments provide information on achievement of particular levels of skills, understanding, and knowledge rather than achievement of certain marks or scores. Thus, continuous assessment enables pupils to monitor their achievement of grade level goals and to visualize their progress towards those goals before it is too late to achieve them.
  • Top of Form
  • Bottom of Form

Characteristics of continuous assessment

  • Top of Form

Good classroom assessment eventually leads to improved teaching. And improved teaching means better academic performance of the students. To ensure that good assessment methods are utilized, the teachers must determine if these characteristics are met.

  1. Active student involvement
  2. Skilled teacher direction
  3. Constructive
  4. Purpose-driven
  5. Comprehensive
  6. Cumulative
  7. Diagnostic
  8. Continuous assessment is formative
  9. Guidance-oriented
  • Systematic in nature

Active student involvement – The involvement of students in assessment is not limited to the role of recipients. The students must contribute to the planning of the assessment. This implies that the coverage of a test is not solely determined by the textbook or by the teacher’s knowledge. The coverage of the test must include information that was gathered and analyzed by the students.
Skilled teacher direction – Although students participate in planning some aspects of the assessment, the teacher holds the wheel in navigating the assessment procedures. It is the classroom teacher who has required the professional training to decide how to carry out the assessment and how to deal with the results of the assessment. In the same vein, outsiders should not direct assessment. It is the teacher who intimately knows the situation in the classroom.

Constructive – The assessment should provide constructive information for both the teacher and the students. Assessments should not be used to threaten students with grades. And assessments should not be used to threaten teachers with scores. On the contrary, assessments should be used to inspire students to perform better. Assessments should be used to identify learning difficulties so that these difficulties can be addressed and overcome. And assessments should be used to help the teacher in improving his/her teaching techniques.

Purpose-driven – The assessment should be able to fulfill its purpose. If it is a summarize type of assessment, then all steps must be taken to ensure that the results will be valid and reliable and the scoring will be objective and free from any bias. If it is a formative type of assessment, then the results must be utilized to improve the teaching and learning process. The scores from formative tests do not end up as grades but as figurative arrows that will guide teachers on how to proceed with the classroom instruction. Thus, formative assessment is, by nature, continuous.

  • Bottom of Form
  • Meaning of Test : a critical examination, observation, or evaluation :  trial; specifically :  the procedure of submitting a statement to such conditions or operations as will lead to its proof or disproof or to its acceptance or rejection <a test of a statistical hypothesis> a basis for evaluation

Uses of test to students

1.     An increased sense of inclusiveness

2.     Higher learning standards for all

3.     Clarified purpose of assessment

4.     Capacity to re mediate weaknesses through strengths

5.     Increased self-awareness for students

6.     Capacity to uncover interdisciplinary

  1. An increased sense of inclusiveness: Continuous assessment provides students with a constant stream of opportunities to prove their mastery of material and sends the message that everyone can succeed if given enough time and practice. This reduces the anxiety and finality around testing and heightens the emphasis on the learning itself. When mastery instead of competition with other students becomes the point of assessment, the focus shifts from superficial competition to true understanding and personal learning goals.
  2. Higher learning standards for all: In a system of continuous assessment, advanced students can progress through material at their own pace and remain engaged by pursuing more challenging work as they pass out of the basics. In this sense, the standards for such students stretch to help each student maximize potential. Because success is defined on an absolute and individualized basis, students cannot be satisfied with their achievements relative to others; they are encouraged to seek their own course and take responsibility for their learning.
  3. Clarified purpose of assessment: The problem with administering assessments only once in a while is that the primary aim is to compare students while at the same time allowing them to “pass” to the next level. This produces a situation in which the purpose of assessment is muddled: the tendency is to let students level up (because, regardless of standards, everyone is generally expected to pass) although they may not truly grasp the material or have a very weak understanding of it. For this reason, students may start the next level at a weaker state with no opportunity to correct their misunderstandings.
  4. Capacity to re mediate weaknesses through strengths: When we, as Christensen suggests, begin measuring the length of time it takes to master a concept or skill and contrast the efficacy of different approaches, we are able to gather data about the learning process and put this knowledge to work for students: “Because learning will no longer be as variable, we can compare students not by what percentage of the material they have mastered, but by comparing how far they have moved through a body of material.” This sort of data solves another problem: the self-perpetuating cycle through which the curriculum and methods of instruction for various subjects are tailored for those who are gifted in them. Math classes, for instance, are taught by those who are gifted at math and through texts written by those who are gifted in the subject as well; and class itself is shaped by the questions and comments of gifted math students. (This leaves those who are not gifted at math feeling excluded and turns them off from the subject.) Imagine an alternative: the confidence students develop in the areas in which they excel helps them learn subjects for which they have less proclivity. And better yet, strategies that have been proven effective for students with specific weaknesses can be used to help other students with those weaknesses. Envision a system that places a student on a proven effective learning path once he displays a learning style and proficiency level that is similar to another student in a network.
  5. Increased self-awareness for students: who, through continuous assessment, come to understand their proficiency and knowledge gaps. Time and again, we encounter evidence that self-awareness — understanding of how one feels, thinks, and learns — is one of the most significant factors in professional and personal success. The famous psychologist, Gardner argues that self-knowledge — “interpersonal skill” — is one of the eight defining types of intelligence (the others being “linguistic,” “logical-mathematical,” “naturalist,” “bodily-kin esthetic,” “spatial,” “musical,” and “interpersonal”). The more continuously we assess students, the more knowledge they can gain about themselves — what it takes for them to master something, how they can approach problems differently, what their blind spots are, and how to eliminate them.
  6. Capacity to uncover interdisciplinary: relationships between subject domains and concepts. Continuous assessment allows us to refine our understanding of the content that we are teaching students. We might discover that effective remediation in a subject requires attention to another subject or that the root of common misunderstandings within a subject is something altogether unexpected.

Among the most frequently used t tests are:

  • A one-sample location test of whether the mean of a population has a value specified in a null hypothesis.
  • A two-sample location test of the null hypothesis that the means of two populations are equal. All such tests are usually called Student’s ttests, though strictly speaking that name should only be used if the variances of the two populations are also assumed to be equal; the form of the test used when this assumption is dropped is sometimes called Welch’s t-test. These tests are often referred to as “unpaired” or “independent samples” t-tests, as they are typically applied when the statistical units underlying the two samples being compared are non-overlapping.[6]
  • A test of the null hypothesis that the difference between two responses measured on the same statistical unit has a mean value of zero. For example, suppose we measure the size of a cancer patient’s tumor before and after a treatment. If the treatment is effective, we expect the tumor size for many of the patients to be smaller following the treatment. This is often referred to as the “paired” or “repeated measures” t-test: see paired difference test.
  • A test of whether the slope of a regression line differs significantly from 0.

Uses of Tests by the Teacher

What is the reason why teachers give students tests? Why do school districts and states create high stakes tests for their students? On one level, the answer to this seems fairly obvious: the reason why we give tests is to see what students have learned. However, this only tells part of the story. Tests have many purposes in our schools. One thing that should be stressed is that in the end, tests should be for the benefit of the student and not the teacher, school, district, or state. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. Following is a look at some of the major reasons why students are given assessments in and out of the classroom.

  1. To Identify What Students Have Learned
  2. To Identify Student Strengths and Weaknesses
  3. To Provide a Method for Awards and Recognition
  4. To Gain College Credit
  5. To Provide a Way to Measure a Teacher and/or School’s Effectiveness
  6. To Provide a Basis for Entry into an Internship, Program, or College

1. To Identify What Students Have Learned

The obvious point of classroom tests is to see what the students have learned after the completion of a lesson or unit. When the classroom tests are tied to effectively written lesson objectives, the teacher can analyze the results to see where the majority of the students are having problems with in their class. These tests are also important when discussing student progress at parent-teacher conferences.

2. To Identify Student Strengths and Weaknesses

Another use of tests is to determine student strengths and weaknesses. One effective example of this is when teachers use pretests at the beginning of units in order to find out what students already know and where the teacher’s focus needs to be. Further, learning style and multiple intelligences tests help teachers learn how to best meet the needs of their students through instructional techniques.

3. To Provide a Method for Awards and Recognition

Tests can be used as a way to determine who will receive awards and recognition. For example, the PSAT is often given in the 10th grade to students across the nation. If a student is a National Merit Scholar due to the results on this test, they are offered scholarships and other forms of recognition.

4. To Gain College Credit

Advanced Placement exams provide students with the opportunity to earn college credit after successfully completing a course and passing the exam with high marks. While every university has its own rules on what scores to accept, most do give credit for these exams. In many cases, students are able to begin college with a semester or even a year’s worth of credits under their belts.

5. To Provide a Way to Measure a Teacher and/or School’s Effectiveness

More and mores states are tying funding to schools to the way that students perform on standardized tests. Further some states are attempting to use these results when they evaluation and give merit raises to the teachers themselves. This use of high stakes testing is often contentious with educators since many factors can influence a student’s grade on an exam. Additionally, controversy can sometimes erupt over the number of hours schools use to specifically ‘teach to the test’ as they prepare students to take these exams.

6. To Provide a Basis for Entry into an Internship, Program, or College

Tests have traditionally been used as a way to judge a student based on merit. The SAT and ACT are two common tests that form part of a student’s entrance application to colleges. Additionally, students might be required to take additional exams to get into special programs or be placed properly in classes. For example, a student who has taken a few years of high school French might be required to pass an exam in order to be placed in the correct year of French.

Uses of the test for Administrator

 All must be suitable for the examination.

If everybody takes the test at same time in same location, than any problems with the above factors should affect all testee’s equally. If more than one testing session given, than all sessions should be held under mostly identical circumstances. Controlling these factors helps to ensure a more reliable testing device.

Various Responsibilities of the Administrator Scheduling the Exam: Of particular concern when testing children:

  1. Don’t test during typical lunch or playground time.
  2. Don’t schedule immediately after holidays or exciting events.
  3. Don’t test longer than 1 hr. (30 min attention span for preschool and elementary school children)
  4. Don’t test longer than 90 min. for secondary school children.

Other Guidelines: Inform students well before the test:

When and where test is given

 What subject material will be given?

 What type of test questions?

 How much time will be allowed?

This information allows the student to prepare and can reduce test taking anxiety.

Informed Consent Sometimes, test takers will have to give their informed consent before a psychological test is administered.

Informed Consent means the person taking the test knows :

Why the test is being given

Who will see the results of the test?

What the results will be used for

For schoolchildren, the parent or legal guardian must give consent. Depending on the state law, standardized educational testing and psychological testing done for research purposes may not require informed consent if :

The testing is mandated by law or governmental agency.

The testing is conducted as a regular part of school activities.

Even when consent is not legally required, test administrators should still inform test takers about the specifics of a test.

Other Administrative Responsibilities Becoming familiar with test : Administrator should read the test manual , and take the test themselves before administering it to others. Understanding the test from ‘both sides of the fence’ will make the testing session run more smoothly as the administrator will understand test-takers perspective. Specific Directions and procedures should also be reviewed one last time immediately before the test begins. Examiners must also become familiar with security procedures for Secure Tests such as the SAT, LSAT, and GRE. Each exam should be inspected and arranged in numerical order.

Ensuring Satisfactory testing conditions

Administrator must ensure sufficient seating. Left-handed accommodations, other physical considerations. Chances for cheating can be minimized through seating arrangements, preparing different exam forms, or multiple answer sheets.

Proper ID may be required for certain tests.

Administration Duties during Exams

  1. Ensure all test takers are given the proper instructions. Instructions should be verbally given to ensure test takers hear the proper directions at least once. Directions should be slowly read and easy to understand. (Familiarity with test a +) Many test have standardized instructions, which serve to keep the test task identical for all respondents.
  2. Establishing Rapport with test takers : Test takers should feel they trust the examiner enough to fairly administer the exam and to answer correctly all reasonable questions concerning the exam. Establishing a good relationship with the test taker is especially important in clinical testing situations. Psychological Traits of a good test administrator: Friendly, objective, authoritative, polite, and appropriate in manner and dress.

Administrative Duties during Testing (continued)

  1.        Remain Alert : Cheating should always be prevented. Employing a number a of proctors during large examinations to roam the room, answering questions and deterring cheating, is one way to help control for inappropriate test taking conduct. The Test-taking environment has be preserved against unwarranted intrusions or disturbances. Loud, unruly behavior cannot be tolerated within a mass testing situation.
  2. Preparing for special situations: Do students all understand English ? What type of equipment is allowable for the exam (calculators, translators, slide-rules, scrap paper) ? Can you deal with sudden medical problems? Test Takers must remain alert and flexible to deal with special circumstances that may crop up during testing.
  3. Flexibility: Standardized Directions may not cover all possible situations. Administrator should be always prepared to deal with novel problems. Experience is sometimes the best teacher when it comes to bizarre testing situations.
  • Uses of Test to the counselor
  1. Communicating feedback test
  2. Interpreting
  3. Administering
  4. Selecting having define the purpose for testing
  5. Confidentially test
  6. Counsellor preparation test
  7. Computerized testing
  8. Scoring, scoring of test
  • Communicating Feedback of Test – result to the client complete the formal process of testing here the therapeutic skill at counselor come fully into play (phalps 1974) the counselor uses verbal and non-verbal interaction skill to connecting message to client and to assess their understanding of it.
  • Interpreting– Interpretation test result is usually the area which allows for the greatest flexibility within the testing process depending opened the counsel theoretical point view and the extent of the test manual guidelines. Interpretation ally be brief and superficial or detailed and explicit theory based (Tersely and Bradley, 1986). Because this are allow for the greatest flexibility, it is also the area with the greatest change of misuse.
  • Administering Test: is usually standardized by the developer of the test. Manual instructions need to be followed in order to make a valid comparison of an individual score with the test is counseling are best given under controlled circumstance.
  • Selecting Having Defined the purpose for testing: The counselor looks to variety of sources for information on available test materials and textbooks on testing and measurement (Anstas 1988; Conbach 1979), the most complete sources of information a particular test usually the test manual.
  • Confidentially test: is the test within the client and counselor, the issue of confidentiality are best discussed with the client before conducting any test administration. There should be no surprises when the counselor asks, at a later time for permission to share test results. Client who are fully informed before testing take place about the issue of confidentially in relation to testing are more active participants in the counseling process.
  • Counsellor Preparation Tests: Are only as good as their construction proper usage and the preparation of the counselor intending to use them. The skills and competencies counselors need for using tests in practice are to:
  • Understanding clearly the intend purpose of a test.
  • Beware of the client’s needs regarding the test to be given.
  • Have personality taken the test before administering it.
  • Have been supervised in administering scoring, interpreting, and communication result of the test to be given.
  • Computerized testing Many of the major tests are now available in a computerized format, this format allows the administration and scoring at the test to occur almost simultaneously, despite the access to computers in testing’s, clients continue to need a counselor ready to assist in answering questions that may arise. Counselors need to keep in mind that most tests were not normed using a computer format and that this may affect comparisons of individual score to the available norms.
  • Scoring; Scoring of tests: Follows the instructions provided in the test manual. The counselor is sometimes given the option of having the test machine scored rather than hand scored. Both the positive and negative aspects of this choice need to be considered. It is usually believed that test scoring is best handed by machine because it is free bias.
  • Ethics, Standards for the Ethical use of tests and assessment instruments:- Are given both the American psychological Association (APA) and the American Association for counseling and department (AACD). These standards spell out the considerations to take into account when utilizing tests in practice. It need to be remembered that the primary purpose of using test in counseling is the information they will provide to the client. Clients will then be better prepared for making decision about meaningful changes in their lives.

Nnadi Goodluck Don hack lord’s Project 2013

Sources Linzey, G. (1959). On the classification of projective techniques. Psychological Bulletin, 56(2), 158–168. Updated: 13th January 2014 – 2:50pm


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